MRP critical finding, societal relevance and policy

MRPs Critical findings, societal relevance and Policy implications

  1. File No.: 6.92

Dr Rajdeep Deb & Dr Himanshu B. Rout, Department of Tourism & Hospitality Management, Mizoram University, Aizawl

“Determinants of Ecotourism Potential of Reiek in Mizoram”

Major findings drawn from the study are:

The ecotourism potential was found to have the highest significant correlation with availability of tourism infrastructure, and the lowest correlation with degree of social interaction.

While assessing the attitude of the respondents towards ecotourism, the findings revealed that that the item, the capacity of ecotourism in improving the quality of life of the local communities in Reiek, was the most dominating factor with the highest mean score 4.15, whereas the lowest mean went to the item, ecotourism helps in enhancing visitors’ awareness on the significance of conservation, with a score 3.72.

It was found that the overall attitudinal variables presented a weak correlation with the demographic variables. This is because the value of correlation coefficients was in the range from 0.005 to 0.158.

Based on the insights derived from the conducted analysis, it can be inferred that there was not enough evidence to conclude that the demographic variables of the respondents influenced their attitude towards ecotourism in the context of Reiek, Mizoram.

Also, the findings revealed that there was not enough evidence to conclude that the demographic variables of the respondents influenced their willingness to participate in ecotourism development of Reiek, Mizoram.

Lastly, the overall mean score of local community’s attitudes towards ecotourism and willingness to participate in ecotourism development was found to be quite high (overall attitude score = 3.99; overall willingness score = 4.43). These results indicates that the local community possessed positive attitude towards ecotourism as well as was willing to participate in ecotourism development of Reiek, Mizoram.

Social relevance of the study:

The impact of ecotourism on preservation is not only confined to community participation but also has considerable impacts on environment. The study asserts that the quality of the Reiek environment will attract tourists as nowadays tourists are interested in visiting exciting places clean from pollution. This will ultimately lead to sustainable development of the area.

It was identified from the study that local residents have positive attitude towards ecotourism as well as are willing to participate in ecotourism development of Reiek. Moreover, they perceive that,if promoted properly, Reiek can be developed as an attractive ecotourism destination and this can lead to socio-economic gains for the local populace as well as community empowerment.

Major policy implications of the study:

The outcomes of the study presented the key determinants of ecotourism potential as well as revealed the attitude of local community towards ecotourism and its willingness to engage in ecotourism development. So, utilizing these results, government and other non-governmental organizations can recognize the weaknesses and work on them by devising changes in the tourism policies and building suitable infrastructure.

The attitude of the local people towards ecotourism and their willingness to participate in ecotourism development can be expedited through proper communication between people residing in and around the ecotourism destination and planners and industry practitioners. So, a robust mechanism needs to be put in place to facilitate the process.

  • File No.: 6.73

Dr. Rosy Chamling, Deptt. of English, Sikkim University

“Tribal Self-Representation through Cultural Festivals of Sikkim”

This minor research project titled “Tribal Self-Representation through Cultural Festivals of Sikkim” granted by the ICSSR-NERC has aimed to trace the ‘performance’ of tribal festivals of Sikkim as attempts to self-representation against the larger rubric of Indian legal provision for tribal understanding which is pivoted around the notion of ‘difference’. The major findings of the project and how these findings are relevant to the society and policy implications for Government have been listed in brief as below:

i. The project findings align with the demand for Scheduled Tribe status by the twelve-left out communities which is being ardently pursued by the Government of Sikkim by proposed a Bill in the House and adopted it as a resolution. The lone MP from Sikkim Shri Indra Hang Subba in his Parliamentary discussion on the Constitution (Scheduled Tribe) Order (Third Amendment) Bill 2022 has vociferously requested for the inclusion of the twelve left-out communities of Sikkim so as to provide “justice” and to “protect the identity” of these communities. 

 ii. Despite its animistic and primitive traits, the tribes of Sikkim are not “primitive” in the technical sense of the term. Many of these tribesmen are listed in the Sate OBC List at the moment and with the display of tribal characteristics they realize the benefits of being listed in the ST List.  Direct economic subsidies and job reservations lie at the heart of this desire to be listed in the ST list. Economic entitlements and political rights linked to Scheduled Tribe status could also be a reason why the various ethnic communities of Sikkim are clamouring for ST status. In Sikkim, celebration of festivals as identity markers is linked to broader issues like unnati (improvement), bikas(development) and adhikar(rights).

iii. The Eastern Himalayan belief systems believe in the human beings being an inextricable part of nature having an indissoluble spiritual and psychological bond with nature. The ethnic Himalayan cultural festivals of Sikkim have environmental concerns deeply embedded within their precepts, not as a separate ideological principle but as a natural part of it.

iv. Display and performance of cultural festivals in Sikkim has also become an important manifestation of cultural tourism. cultural festivals by the Government of Sikkim is a veritable example of cultural tourism.

v. In the current scenario of Sikkim, cultural festivals cease to become apolitical, but become a matter of deep political concern hinging on issues of survival and assertion of rights. From being a mere spiritual journey to the transformation into a political subject, cultural festivals become identity markers. From being matters of personal practice to performative assertion, cultural festivals can be seen transforming into acts of political activism.

3. File No.: 6.79

Dr Rosy Yumnam, Assistant Professor, The English and Foreign Languages University,


“The Use of the Folktales of Meghalaya to Integrate the Teaching of Culture and English Language Skills to the Students of Step By Step School, Shillong”

The study aimed at the broader objective of adding extensive research on the teaching of English language skills and understanding culture by exploring the narratives of the folktales of Meghalaya. The study further employed select folktales of Meghalaya as the content in the Content and Language Integrated Learning (CLIL) approach to integrate the teaching of culture and English language skills in the upper primary schools (standard VII and VIII) under the MBOSE in Grace School (Formerly Step By Step School), Shillong, Meghalaya.

Critical findings

From the findings, it has been observed that in the study conducted using folktales as text in English language classrooms, the level of development in the language skills of listening and writing of the student participants is higher compared to reading and speaking. Moreover, there has been development in the language skills of reading and speaking too. The higher level of development of the listening and writing skills amongst the student participants indicated that there has been conceptualisation, planning, logical arrangement of thought, brainstorming and application of the content learnt. As the integration of the four language skills is required to effectively develop the second language, reading and speaking too have developed in the process but their effectiveness lies in constant practice. This has been realised as the cultural contents were integrated into the process of the development of the language skills of the student participants which is the objective of English Language Teaching.

Relevance of the study

On the level of pedagogical action, the study indicated that the designed modules are applicable to all the communities where the learner’s medium of education is English as a second language. However, the learning materials are to be methodically prepared. The objective of preserving the indigenous culture in the process of learning the English language using indigenous content finds scope in English language classrooms. The study has indicated that the integrative learning of culture which is taken as a fifth skill in language teaching and learning of a second language can find scope in English language classrooms. Though CLIL is pertinent to every aspect of education whether vernacular or English, the study, however, aims at the encouragement of English language education using the CLIL approach. In the course of the study, it is imperative to use the folktales as content highly motivated and propelled the connectedness of the learners to their cultural traditions while learning English language skills.

Important policy implications

A certain degree of second language competence is required to understand a text’s critical concepts when presented in that language. So, in order to bring out the cultural relevance in the English language classrooms, folktales of Meghalaya were used as text to incorporate the teaching of content and language.

  • File No: 6.91

Dr Mrs Modang Reena,  Assistant Professor, Department of Geography, Wangcha Rajkumar Govt. College, Deomali, Arunachal Pradesh

“An Analysis of the Level of Socio-Economic Development in Longding District of Arunachal Pradesh”

Longding district-study area socio-economically is one of the most backwarddistricts of Arunachal Pradesh with large number of school drop outs, lack of health care facilities, poverty, opium addiction, and poor road communication, accompanied by the series of insurgency has become the common feature of the study area which hampered the level of socio economic development of the study area. The present research work is an attempt to examine the level of agriculture, infrastructural facilities and socio-economic development at circle level in the Longding dist. The study tries to associate between the level of development based on various socio-economic indicator. The study covers three main sector namely social, economic and infrastructural sectors. This study is an attempt to bridge the gap that exists today in a sphere of social and economic field.

Longding district is economically backward with low productivity in agriculture and low infrastructural facilities and no work from the geographical point of view has been carried out regarding its of socio economic development so far. The works available are generally ethnographic in nature focusing on the socio–cultural life of the people in the frame of continuity and change. It is due to this reason, research work on this topic is selected and such studies will go a long way in solving the problems of inequalities in socio-economic development.

The overall analysis of the study reveals the fact that there are marked inequalities in the level of socio-economic development in Longding district. In the analysis of agricultural development the researcher found that there is marked spatial inequalities across the various circles of the study area. Socio-economic development of the study region is not developed evenly. So it is necessary to develop the basic facilities i.e. physical and infrastructural facilities at the village level of the study region. Effort should be made in the field of transportation and communication, so that the low developed area may come up at par with relatively developed circles. More banks, educational institutes, and industries should be opined and the government can play a vital role in this regard.

  • File No: 6.86

Dr Ayekpam I. Chanu, Department of Commerce, Assam University, Karbi Anglong, Assam,

“Bamboo Based Entrepreneurship Development in Hill Districts of Assam: Problems and Prospects”

The present study has been undertaken with an attempt to explore the problems and prospects of ‘Bamboo-based entrepreneurship’ and existing Government’s policy towards ‘Bamboo-based entrepreneurship’ in the Hill Districts of Assam. The Hill districts comprises of Karbi Anglong, West Karbi Anglong and Dima Hasao.. The findings reveal that all the bamboo growers (sample households) are small and marginal farmers; and majority are involved in ‘bamboo plantation/cultivation for commercial use’ as entrepreneurial activity. Five species of bamboos are found to be cultivated by the bamboo growers of the study area for commercial purpose. The main bamboo-products produced for commercial purpose are matured bamboo, raw -materials for other products, furniture items, bamboo shoots (which is seasonal in nature) and handicraft and decorative items. The average monthly net income from bamboo-based entrepreneurial activities is found to be Rs 16,667 (approximately). Marketing, Technical, Institutional development, Manpower, Exploitation by middlemen, etc. are some of the problems  associated in ‘Bamboo-based entrepreneurship Development’ in the study area. A huge prospect of Bamboo-based entrepreneurship is revealed in the areas like Ethanol production, Bamboo fabric production, etc. The SWOT analysis reveals that the strengths and opportunities are more than threats in Bamboo-based entrepreneurship in the study area. The Government of Assam had  launched the Assam Bamboo and Cane Policy 2019 which includes a 16 point action plan  related to  ‘Encouragement of Bamboo entrepreneurs’; however, majority of the households of  that involved in bamboo-based entrepreneurial activities do not have the knowledge of  such policies.

            The Outcomes of the present study clearly indicate that there is huge gap in policy formulation and policy implementation; as well as, there is not much headway in terms of industrialization in bamboo sector in the study area. Some of the policy recommendations made for both the Central and State government to create the Hill districts of Assam a fertile ground of Bamboo-Based Entrepreneurs are:

  • Conducting Awareness  programmes regularly on : benefit of cultivation of bamboo, use of bamboo products and consumption of  tender bamboo shoots, scientific harvesting of bamboo and its shoots, market linkages for local handicraft industries, technology applications in producing bamboo products, protection of bamboo forest;                  
  • Conducting Hands on Training programme regularly on: Use of modern  technology for production of bamboo- based products, Developing export-oriented quality-based products,    
  • Proper Financial assistance to the bamboo-based entrepreneurs who are from MSME sector and reduce the GST rate on bamboo products ,
  • Implementation of the NBM and the Assam Bamboo and Cane Policy 2019 in true spirit,
  • Inclusion of a chapter on health benefits on consumption of tender bamboo shoots in the school syllabus and bamboo-based entrepreneurship in the value added course in undergraduate syllabus respectively.

It is expected that the findings of the study will give inputs in formulating suitable policy and programmes related to bamboo-based entrepreneurship in Hill districts of Assam by both the Autonomous Councils of the Hill districts and the Government of Assam and society as a whole, will get benefit from it. .

  • File No. 6.85

Mr Pynshongdor L. Nongbri, Assistant Professor, Department of Business Administration, St. Anthony’s College, Shillong

“Beekeeping and Rural Livelihood: A Study of Mawkynrew Block, East Khasi Hills District, Meghalaya”


In the study, the researcher also found that the beekeepers have encountered changes in many aspects after adopting beekeeping as listed below: –

Sl. No.AspectsChangesFigures
1Socio-economic statusIncrease72.86 percent
2Recognition in the familyIncrease58.57 percent
3Interaction with outsiderIncrease52.86 percent
4Literacy/EducationIncrease58.57 percent
5Accessibility towards health servicesIncrease55.71 percent
6Accessibility towards immunizationIncrease52.86 percent
7Accessibility toward sanitation facilitiesIncrease55.71 percent
8Accessibility to credit sources after practicingIncrease47.14 percent
9Accessibility of the bee keeper in asset buildingSame51.43 percent
10Voicing the concernSame54.29percent
11nutritional awareness of the bee keeper after adopting bee keepingSame58.57percent
12health awareness of the bee keeper after adopting bee keepingSame51.43 percent

Relevance for society

This study will help understand beekeeping and its importance in contributing towards sustaining the rural livelihood economically, socially, environmentally and to create an environment in encouraging rural people to become an entrepreneur in the field of beekeeping.

Policy Implications

  1. Diversification, intensification and access to markets
  2. Honey Producer Group
  3. Sustainable business enterprise
  4. Support services
  5. Capacity building
  6. Support women in beekeeping
  7. Institutional role
  8. File no.: 6.74

Dr Punyo Yarang, Assistant Professor, Department of Political Science, Rajiv Gandhi University, Arunachal Pradesh

“An Assessment of Policy Implementation: A Study of Itanagar Municipal Corporation, Arunachal Pradesh”.

Critical Findings

This study has found that Itanagar Municipal Corporation is in a rudimentary stage in sense of urban local bodies. Though it tried to give full effect to the 74th constitutional amendment act of India, and the Arunachal Pradesh Municipal Act of 2007 and 2019 but the implementation is still in the initial stage.The study has found that the structure of IMC is constituted as per the 74th constitutional amendment act. In regards to the reservation, there is no Schedule Caste or other category. The entire indigenous population is Schedule Tribe. Therefore, all elected representative members are APST. In regards to women, one-third of the total number is APST women. The findings are also the sort of man power and lack of people’s awareness are the main cause of incapable in waste management by the IMC.

Relevance for society

This research is also relevant that the problems faced by the IMC have not been adequately highlighted in the literature, because it is a new experience for the people of Arunachal Pradesh who are in transition stage from traditional government to modern government.

Important Policy Implications of this research

This study can help to understand the factors for inadequacy of the IMC. Poor quality of life in urban areas is the result of poor governance. IMC also has a local factor that can be address through formulation of proper policy as per the need of people. Policy planner and administrator can take the reference of this research for the better performance of the IMC.

  • File No.: 6.76

Dr Benjamin F. Lyngdoh, Assistant Professor, Department of Tourism and Hotel Management, North-Eastern Hill University, Shillong

“Covid 19 Pandemic and Tourism of Meghalaya: Socio-Economic Impact and Mitigation Measures”.

Important Findings, Policy Implications and Social Relevance of the Project

The study found that covid-19 pandemic adversely impacted upon the economic position of the tourism service providers. This is in line with the global tourism picture. On the contrary, the social impact was not too extreme. The tourism service providers fared better than the non-tourism ones. This is because tourism activities require extensive business communication and continuous interaction with the tourist. Further, due to higher margins from sales the tourism service providers have a better means to access social amenities combined with good social capital.

The cause-effect relationship analysis found propensity to save, standard of living, image of business, self confidence and access to learning and communication skills as explanatory variables for the creation of a resilient enterprise. The mitigation measures identified includes propensity to save, self confidence and access to learning, application of digital marketing and hard work and perseverance of the entrepreneur as key elements.

The policy implications entails training and capacity building of the entrepreneurs and the personnel involved in the business enterprises, embracing the advantages of digital marketing and technology in business, exposure of budding and prospective entrepreneurs to a course on entrepreneurship and small business management, devising a roadmap for encouraging and initiation of more tourism service providers, mitigating the gaps in service quality and regulation of tourism for the establishment of a structured and resilient framework of tourism development.

The study is socially relevant as the subject-matter of covid-19 pandemic and tourism is a contemporary issue of much significance to Meghalaya. It provides information on the impact of covid-19 on the tourism service providers and the hardships associated with it. This helps in deriving mitigating measures in preparation for future pandemics/uncertainties. Further, the findings can be collated and compared with similar studies in other geographical regions. The methodology is contemporary in nature in terms of propensity score analysis. It is a technique which is effectively used in impact evaluation. The research also acts as a base for policy formulation, planning and development of tourism, particularly in relation to adverse events like pandemics/uncertainties in the context of Meghalaya.

Importantly, while factoring the global nature of the pandemic; the mitigation measures and policy implications may be a valuable guide for developing economies in general that practice tourism.

  • File No.: 6.87

Dr Mrinal Ghosh, Assistant Professor, Department of Commerce, Gargaon College, Assam

“Impact of Skill Development Initiatives on Livelihood and Employment: A Study on the Sivasagar District of Assam”

Critical findings:

The study’s findings regarding employment status reveal a notable transformation due to skill development programs. Skill development programs offer a crucial advantage by facilitating career transitions and providing industry-specific credentials. These programs also grant participants access to valuable networks and mentors, fostering essential connections for career growth. Furthermore, the study showcased the positive influence of the skill development program on participants’ income. Skill development programmes affect lives and employment. These implications may be used by policymakers to improve current programmes and create fresh plans that better meet the demands and ambitions of the populace, eventually promoting inclusive economic growth and social advancement.

Relevance to society:

In the context of societal advancement, skill development programs serve as a pivotal tool for enabling career shifts and providing specialized credentials aligned with industry needs. Beyond skill enhancement, these programs play a pivotal role in building robust networks and mentorship connections, fostering a supportive ecosystem for participants’ career advancement. This underscores the program’s potential in uplifting individuals to more sustainable income levels, subsequently contributing to the overall socio-economic upliftment of the community.

Policy Implications:

1.         Enhancing Skill Development Initiatives: The Pradhan Mantri Kaushal Vikas Yojana (PMKVY), among other skill development initiatives, had a considerable positive influence on candidates’ skill sets, according to the research.

2.         Job Creation and Employment: This suggests that skill development programmes are essential for opening up work chances for people, especially for those with poor employment prospects. In order to fulfill regional employment demands, policymakers should prioritize enhancing and customizing skill development programmes.

3.         Income Improvement: The research emphasizes how skill development programmes raise participants’ income levels in a good way. Utilizing this knowledge, policymakers should develop initiatives that alleviate income inequality and assist people in moving up the income scale. This can entail including elements of financial literacy in training that is specifically aimed at industries with high demand.

  1. File No.:6.88

Dr Rama Koteswara Rao Kondasani, Assistant Professor, Department of Management Studies, National Institute of Technology, Silchar,  Assam

“Examining Visit Intention among Potential Visitiors in Barak Valley, Role of eWOM Characteristics, Tourist Engagement and Trust: North Eastern Region (NER) Tourism Perspective”

Relevance of the study for society

Increase in potential tourism will lead to actual visit in various destinations which will help building the local economy and providing an alternate source of income for localities. The locals will get knowledge about the industry and will be able to blend along with its cultural values which will be a fresh experience for the tourist. The government and private entities related to the tourism industry will gain insights and formulate practical strategies which will be beneficial for all parties. In rural places like Barak Valley, research of such type will help society develop its tourism potential and attain goals by utilising a variety of resources. The findings will aid many stakeholders, including customers, tour operators, government agencies, and local residents, in developing an integrated strategy that will benefit the entire society. Individuals from all aspects of tourism can join together (online and offline) for sharing of ideas and expertise, and networking at the tourism society.

Relevance of the proposed study for policy making

Getting research into policy and practise is a method of translating research findings into choices and actions. The process of incorporating research results into policy-making and effectively communicating those findings to policymakers is a significant hurdle encountered across the globe. While both urban policymakers and social scientists want to solve society’s most pressing problems, their relationships are frequently difficult, if not downright harmful. A study on eWOM marketing technique and its influence will describe a collaborative research project demonstrating how shifting from a conceptual understanding to an empirical comprehension of problem structuring can emphasize the potential for constructive learning rather than hindering it, thus bridging the gap between research and policymaking. Further academic awareness of the eWOM marketing approaches can help remote regions like Barak Valley develop their marketing capacity to successfully manage unstructured concerns.

In order for policies to be implemented, they must be adopted by relevant government and private entities. The relevant institutions can adopt the marketing strategy which can help in developing strong policy on how to engage potential tourist which will lead to their visit intention. This research project will help the tour operators and government agencies to develop policies that attracts new tourist and generate revenue. Organizational policies provide a clear sense of direction, coherence, accountability, effectiveness, and transparency in the operations of an entity, ultimately providing cooperative members with a framework of principles and guidelines to abide by.

  1. File No.: 6.70

Dr.  Saralin A. Lyngdoh & Dr Barika Khyriem, Department of Linguistics, North-Eastern Hill University, Shillong

“Linguistic Mapping of the Regional Dialects of Khasi”

Critical Findings

The comparative lexicostatistical analysis of regional varieties of Khasi based on several semantic field word lists is presented in this study. The lexicostatistical data is used to look at the lexical and phonetic similarities and differences found in the seven varieties of Standard Khasi for the relevant forms. The lexical and phonetic distinctions between the seven varieties with the Standard Khasi are compared using the computer software Cog created by SIL International (2014). The Lexical Similarity of the Semantic Fields reveals that the Pariong (75%), Sahsniang (74%), and Umñiuh (71%) have the closest degree of lexical similarity to the Standard Khasi. The Sutnga (61%), Moolamylliang (63%), and Shallang (50%) varieties also show a comparatively high lexical similarity, whereas Thangbuli, on the other hand, has the least overall lexical similarity with the Standard Khasi of only 28%. In terms of phonetic similarity, the Pariong (85%), Sahsniang (83%), and Umñiuh (80%) varieties are seen to be the closest to the Standard Khasi. With 77% apiece, the Sutnga and Moolamylliang are similarly close. Thangbuli, on the other hand, has a 51% phonetic similarity to Standard Khasi. The study also focused on describing the variations in the occurrence of vowels in various varieties of Standard Khasi and then using a Geographical Information System (GIS) analytical tool to illustrate their distribution on a geolinguistic map.

Research Implication and Social Relevance

Based on the findings, it can be inferred that the complex variations are found to be significant as they differ from Standard Khasi in terms of lexical and phonetic correspondence. The Umñiuh, and Pariong varieties are lexically and phonetically immediate and close neighbors of the Standard Khasi, the Sahsniang, Sutnga and Moolamylliang varieties are relatively close to the Standard Khasi and the other varieties, while the Thangbuli and Shallang varieties are distant neighbors of the Standard Khasi and the other varieties. A mapping of these dialects on the basis

of the regions in the form of a detailed linguistic analysis has been attempted, and the corresponding forms belonging to the different dialects whose variations are enabled and constrained by the respective regions have been charted.

This study is immensely informative and influential, shaping our understanding about the mechanisms of language variations and changes in the different dialects of Khasi. Eventually, the accounts of the analyses contribute to the study of the structure of the varieties of languages.  With these insights and observations, the study provides a number of questions which open up future lines of inquiry for future dialectological research on the Khasi language and its varieties.

  1. File no: 6.77

Dr Rosemary Debbarma, Assistant Professor, Department of Political Science, Women’s College, Shillong

“Local Governing Institutions in Nagaland: A Study of Village A Study of Village Development Board in Wokha District”

Critical Findings: Wokha district is known as the ‘Land of Plenty’ in Nagaland. The produce from this area of Nagaland is highly sought after especially in places like Kohima and Dimapur, where people have more purchasing capacity. The produce is all organic as the usage of pesticide and other chemicals are not popular with the farmers in this area. If the government of Nagaland through the VDB can tap this as the catch for marketing the produce in the market where there is more demand for organic products, it will surely help earn the villagers a decent economic income. Produce in these villages are perishable goods, or have shorter shelf life except paddy. The varieties of locally grown organic vegetables and cereals cannot be stored beyond few months. This leads to hesitancy among the people in the villages to cultivate and produce such food items in large quantity because of storage problem. If proper packaging and labeling of these products as ‘organic’ and ‘best use within’ in a hygienic environment is developed through VDBs, it will encourage the people in the villages as well as fetch them better economic avenues for livelihood. Facilities for cold-storage is essential in all the villages for storing produce before shipping to urban areas for sale. For this purpose, the VDB officials and members can be sensitized in preparing and including this kind of proposal in their project for such kind of facilities to be established for villagers for storage of produce. The study revealed that many VDBs in the villages are experiencing hardship for not getting timely released of funds. One of the reasons expressed by the officials was the diversion of fund received for other purpose. During audit, if any objection is raised then the remaining flow of funds gets withheld.

Relevance for society:

Various schemes like the The Global Innovative Alliance (GIA), The Grant-in-Aid is allocated to all VDBs, the Matching Cash Grant from the government, Post Office Time Deposit Scheme, Micro-finance scheme, MGNREGS, Pradhan Mantri Awaas Yojana-Gramin have helped the youth to take up income generating activities, these programmes took interest in the  welfare and development of women, for income generation programmes for the youth and remaining for the general welfare of all villages and also ensure construction of quality houses by using local materials, designs and masons specially trained in quality workmanship. Convergence is proposed by providing permanent shelter so that migration to urban areas is reduced substantially over the years.

Policy Implication:

In the light of the findings of the study, the following recommendations or suggestions may be made for the improvement and more effective functioning of Village Development Board (VDB) to make it more vibrant in the field of development at the grassroot level economy which is the sole aim of the VDB from its inception:  For inclusive development in the rural areas to take place, VDB members have to be free from political and external influences in discharging their duties and responsibilities and exhibit a characteristic of accountability to the people of the village. Women representation in the VDB with 25% reservation policy is an important step in bridging the gap of the existing gender inequalities in the society. The government’s vision of inclusiveness right from the grass-root level is a positive step. This kind of institutional transformation, whereby, public space is opened up for the entry of women in patriarchal social system is a giant step in increasing the participation of women in village development activities and empowering them at the local level.

With regard to the improvement of VDB, it is suggested by respondents that there should be more transparency and accountability, cooperation of officials and people, full utilization of government allocated funds for development, empowerment of youth and women and active participation of community.

  1. File No. 6.71

Dr Vandana, Department of Education, North-Eastern Hill University, Shillong

“A Study of Online Learning Experiences of School Students in Meghalaya”.

Critical findings

  • No systematic assessment of access, usefulness, and problems experienced by school students in online learning. 
  • The study indicates limited access to digital learning among primary and upper-primary students. The problem is further compounded by the incompatibility of devices for online learning. Indicating further that K-12 students will probably face similar problems, depending on parents’ digital devices to access online learning. 
  • The study found that it is imperative to investigate the differences between online learning expectations in students of different school years to suit their needs better
  • The study highlights a host of benefits and limitations surrounding online learning, which could potentially aid in further enhancing online learning in the future.

Relevance for society

The study looks into the learning of students, with focus on online learning among the primary and upper primary students in Meghalaya.In a rapid technologically developing society, where learning is following anonline based trajectory, it is vital that society takes into account the access, usefulness, and problems of the online based learning. It goes without saying that primary and upper primary are fundamental stage of learning and it is vital that society takes into account all the necessary details to facilitate their academic advancement.  The study provides information on these lines, with the purpose to enhance academic integrity policies, importance of technical skills and digital literacy.

Important policy implication of the study

  • A major problem found in the study is the limited access and device incompatibility of devices in digital learning. It is imperative that these issues must be addressed, which can be achieved via partnerships with governments, nonprofits, or businesses to provide affordable or subsidized devices to students who require them.
  • Ensuring reliable internet connectivity is necessary step that must enforced. This can be achieved by investments in improved technical infrastructure, enhancing coverage in remote areas, and exploring alternative connectivity options.
  • Educators and students must be exposed toworkshops, tutorials, online courses covering technical aspects, best practices, and troubleshooting techniques to ensure proficiency inonline learning.
  •  Reinforce academic integrity policies to all individuals taking tests or examinations. Emphasize a zero-tolerance stance towards cheating and clearly outline the potential repercussions for participating in dishonest actions, ensuring a solid awareness of the consequences.
  • File No. : 6.72

Dr Rajesh Ramasamy, Assistant Professor, Department of Tourism & Hospitality Management, Mizoram University, Aizawl.

“A Study on Impact of Ethnic Festival Tourism”

The main motives of this research work was to look at how ethnic festivals affect the sociocultural, economic, and environmental well-being of local indigenous community and to develop a holistic model of ethnic festivals impact on indigenous local community’s well-being. The primary data was composed from indigenous local community from 11 districts of Mizoram through a structured questionnaire. A total of 399 samples were collected from the respondents. The overall survey tool reliability value is 0.83. Primary data were analysed by using multiple regression. The indigenous local community’s socio-cultural well-being is influenced by five factors such as cultural and educational benefits, community benefits, cultural opportunity, emotional attachment, quality life concern. Followed by the indigenous local community’s economic well-being determined by three factors such as macro benefits, micro benefits and standard of living. Further, the indigenous local community environmental well-being is influenced by three factors such as carrying capacity, ecological degradation and traffic and waste management. Furthermore, this research study also identified how ethnic festival influences indigenous local community’s socio-cultural well-being, economic well-being and environmental well-being. In addition, this research study establishes that ethnic festival has strongly influences on the indigenous local community’s socio-cultural well-being, economic well-being and environmental well-being. This research study as such developed a holistic ethnic festivals impact measurement model to identify impact caused by ethnic festivals on well-being indigenous local community. Since ethnic festival tourism has the biggest potential, it is ideal for the state tourism industry to focus on it. For long-term growth and sustainable development of tourism, other types of tourism, such as business and cultural tourism, can be planned well. The key insights of this research may contribute for shaping the existing theoretical model on impact of ethnic festivals on local community’s well-being.

  1.        File No.: 6.80

Dr Angira Kar, Assistant Professor & Head, Department of History, Women’s  College, Shillong

“The Nokma of the Garo Society: Colonial and Post -Colonial Period”.

The study has observed the uniqueness of the tribe and the institution studied. These major findings highlight this aspect of the study.

 The muga worm or the muga  j’ong is being reared in the tree and the muga thread is used in the making of the dress of the Garo women known as the Dakmanda. The thread has captured many markets of West Garo Hills and is in great demand in the Sericulture Department of Tura. The present nokma of Jenjal, West Garo Hills is also practicing its cultivation.  

In some parts of Garo Hills such as Upper Rangsa village, on the Hahim Assam border, West Khasi Hills, Meghalaya, Mawshynrut (Tuluk), the Garos refer to the head of their villages as gangburas and not nokmas. On the other hand in the villages of Harigaon, Belbari, Koligaon, Noksi and Gutlibari situated in the western parts of Garo Hills, the villagers refer to their chief as nokma although the villagers and their chiefs belong to the Koch community and are not Garos. Hence they are referred to as Koch nokmas.


Measures may be initiated on the part of the government at the level of the state to sustain and preserve such traditional practices of the society of the Garos and also restore back some of the lost cultural heritage. Sustenance of the local traditional features of the society will not only build the local social fabric but will also offer support and strength to the larger social scenario of the country as a whole.

Various arts and crafts such as the art of woodwork, woodcarvings, cane-work, basketry, making of musical instruments, bamboo ladles, wooden furniture etc are usually taught to young boys, along with learning to play musical instruments, games such as wrestling and many others in the nokpantes, these traditions should not be done away with traditional Garo villages while adopting Christianity and modernization. However, despite the religious aspect of the institution of nokpante, the age old traditional culture may be upheld in the Garos villages, as traditional training and teaching of useful arts to the young boys which takes place in these dormitories. Thus, customary features of the society such as the nokpante or for that matter the traditional position of the nokma may be sustained.

  1.   File No.: 6.84

Dr Trisha Borgohain, Assistant Professor, Department of English, Assam Don Bosco University, Guwahati

“A Socio-Cultural Study of the Tai Communities in North-East India”

The study highlight the following aspects:

Understanding and creating an awareness about the diversity of our culture.

The factors that affect language, death and loss of identity among the Tai people and their subsequent assimilation with the neighbouring communities. At present, considerable importance has been given to the ethnic minorities of India. The study contributes towards a holistic understanding of the Tai communities in Northeast India. The study explores the following areas: Study of the Religious trends of the Tai Communities of Northeast India- The influence of Confucianism in the Buddhist religious trends among the Tai people and the influence of Hinduism and Vaishnavism among the Tai-Ahoms. Interpretation of the Cultural identity of the Tai people of Northeast India- Interpretation of the use of Ngi Ngao Kham as an identity marker in the Tai social conventions. The dress patterns and the significance of different colours in the dress patterns. A study of the trends in cultural assimilation and its impact among the Tai people of Northeast India- A study of the linguistic trends and language assimilation among the Tai communities.

Relevance to society:

Tai, a large ethnic group belongs to the Tai-Kadai group of languages. They are currently scattered across parts of South-east Asia and South Asia (especially, Northeast India). Having followed different paths of migrations, their original homeland is believed to be located in Yunnan Province, China. It is believed that after the Han Period, the Tais moved to various parts of Southeast Asia and South Asia- Laos, Vietnam, Myanmar, Cambodia, Thailand and India. They are recognized as Thais, Laos, Shans, Lus and so on. Having migrated to different far-away lands, these people share a common socio-cultural and socio-political legacy through the generational practices of their ancestral culture and social systems and conventions. In maintaining these, they have been able to preserve their distinct ethnic identity while being assimilated into the customs and traditions of the places they had migrated. Having shared common ancestral grounds, many of their customs and conventions are a reflection of a rich cultural heritage still prevalent in various parts of South-east Asia. The present study connects these variables of religion, culture and language and analyse their influence to study the socio-cultural trends of the Tai communities of Northeast India.

Project Relevance for Policy Making: The study contributes towards the digital data archiving of the traditions of the ethnic communities. Audio-visual recordings These will further help in the future research endeavours about these communities. At present, considerable importance has been given to the ethnic minorities of India. The study contributes towards a holistic understanding of the Tai communities in Northeast India.

  1. File No.: 6.69

Dr Rihunlang Rymbai, Asst. Prof., Department of Education,North-Eastern Hill University, Shillong

“Stress and Coping with Online Education during the Covid-19 Pandemic: A Qualitative Study of the Post Graduate Students of North-Eastern Hill University.”

  1. Critical findings
  2. Several participants are stressed while undergoing online learning during the COVID-19 pandemic.
  3. During the time, the hardship they face, the difficulties that they underwent, overwhelms the participants.
  4. Stress is mainly due to prolonged hours of attending online classes which generally stretches throughout the day.
  5. The type of stress faced by post graduate students pertaining to online classes during the COVID-19 pandemic are academic stress, home-environment/family stress, socioeconomic stress, physical stress, emotional/mental stress, and technological stress.
  6. Students identified the ways and methods to deal with the stress that they encounter. The stress relieving and coping methods and strategies were either habituated or situational to the exposed stress.
  7. As reinforcement of effective coping with stress, few students experienced a positive outlook even with the mandatory online education.
  8. Online education has motivated certain few students as reinforcement of effective coping with stress.
  9. There are benefits of using coping strategies as reinforcement of effective coping with stress.
  10. As reinforcement of effective coping with stress, few students experienced the endeavours proliferated by online education.
  1. Relevance for society

The hectic curriculum and demands on the part of the students has caused a big group of students to be under stressed. Thus, the study contributed in understanding the stressed faced by students especially with the current trends such as a very tight online educations as has occurred during the pandemic. Thus, the relevance of the study for students and society at large are:

  • The whole education fraternity must be ready to conduct online education through online mode.
  • The teachers and students need to have simulated exposure to online classed to equip them with skills and knowledge of using the online mode.
  • The students need the much-required support in terms of facilities, network, uninterrupted electricity, counselling, while undergoing the online classes.
  • The students need to be encouraged to enrol in online courses offered in the SWAYAM platform.
  • Important policy implications of your study

The education system may be executed, progressed, and serviced with a light but tight system as mentioned in the NEP 2020.Online learning has its benefits and difficulties. The students are caught unaware during the pandemic and are exposed to the online education and classes. The study thus implies that the students has learn during the Covid 19 pandemic through the medium of online classes. Despite the stress that the students face, they have been able to apply the coping strategies that best suited them, and has also drawn different positive understandings from the practice. With this finding, the authorities concerned can help identify effective coping strategies to help students cope with the related stress. Also, the finding will help in identifying their strengths and their optimal functioning in order to deal with related stress

  1. File no.: 6.75

Dr. Trailokya Deka, Assistant Professor, Department of Economics, B.P. Chaliha College, Assam

“Impact Assessment of Covid-19 on Assam Economy: An Empirical Study”.

Section-1: A Few Special Findings of the Study

  • Besides the direct and indirect impacts through the disease Covid-19, many people have suffered a lot due to the closure of day-to-day activities, closure of public transportation, closure of industries or services etc. in the state Assam. Massive negative socio-economic impacts like general depression, loss in general education services, loss in general physical health of human being, general reduction of bonding of social structure, joblessness, loss of livelihood, poverty etc.
  • General inward migration from urban to rural areas and sudden rise of number of unemployment has become a serious problem during and after the period of Covid-19
  • 24 percent of the tea tribe labours directly suffered from the disease Covid-19. People (97 percent), the tea tribe community do not have a normal habit to visit health centres even if they suffer from any disease. They use tea leaves, roots, and some other medicinal plants available in and around their locality as local medicines for any disease.
  • Covid-19 led containment measures including lockdowns, quarantines, ban of transportation etc. are the major reasons of decreasing trend of production in silk and handloom industries
  • price hike of mulberry silk (which came from Karnataka at price Rs. 5,2000 per KG before Corona has gone up to Rs.9,600 per KG after Corona) since January 2021 has affected the production of looms and most of the looms has been inactive for the last several months.
  • Income has been reduced, cost of production has been increased and finally the total demand for paat-muga has gone down (90%)
  • Handloom industries of Assam have earned heavy amount of net income which is found Rs.62,000/- per month before Covid-19. Due to decrease of production and product demand, monthly average income of weavers has come down to Rs.3000/- only.
  • Covid-19 has not only impacted the nonfarm activities but also the farm activities a lot.
  • Farmers were unable to plant and harvest their crops peacefully because of restricted labour movement and transport bans. Marketing systems has suffered at extreme level.
  • Government imposed restrictions in organizing social public programmes have severely impacted the floriculture business in Assam. Absence of transportation, closure of Ma Kamakhya temple and other places of worships,lack of local, national and foreign demand for flower were the major reasons of negative impact over the floriculture business of Assam.

Section-2: Policy Issues for Implementation

As a whole the basic policy issues for implementation in Assam are divided into the following three headings.

Socio-Economic Issues:

In the post pandemic period, livelihood of poor weavers and workers in handloom industries has become a question. This is mainly due to Covid-19 led containment measures implemented in Assam. Government may implement ‘Handloom Reservation Act, 1985’ as quickly as possible and provide the pandemic stimulus to the artisans.

Facility of safe drinking water is not available specially in some of the tea tribe areas. Thus, the maintenance of health and hygiene among the workers in tea gardens of Assam is a matter of discussion and that requires improvement. Government already introduced dozens of social security measures (like MGNREGA, Skill India Movement, Jan Dhan Yojana etc.) related to income and employment dimensions.

  • It is now necessary to prepare some integrated framework where economic development is discussed maintaining Covid-19 and social distancing norms. Integrated approach of development may help the society to live in a healthy life.

Issues Related with Education:

Majority of the students have gained a tendency for promotion without seating in any examination. Open book examination system has started its journey beginning from the pandemic. General pass-fail may continue in the recent system but there may have challenge with regard to future innovation and academic creativity.

Covid-19 has pressurized digitization in higher education. Proper infrastructural facilities should be created in institutions. Instead of giving one shoot first doze of using digital devices in higher education some knowledge should be created in lower levels as well.

Issues Related with Women and Children:

Governments along with the civil society organizations must come forward and help at the utmost level to those women who have suffered or suffering due to the pandemic Covid-19. special packages for women from the concerned ministries to get rid of the negative impacts of Covid-19. Widow or divorcee women must get special attention from the ministries and some facilities must be arranged for their safe livelihood.

  1. File no: 6.82

Ms. Emdorini Thangkhiew, Department of Political Science, Synod College, Shillong

“Learning in the Times of Covid-19: Recovery and Response : A Case Study of Education in Meghalaya”.

  1. Critical findings
  2. Disruption of learning
  3.  Digital divide created by online learning’
  4. Learning loss especially for girl child and children from poor families.
  5. Learning Gap caused by the pandemic has not been bridged.
  6. Mental health and psychological impact exposes the inadequacy of schools in addressing mental health concerns.
  1. Relevance for society

This project deals in the ground realities of COVID-19. It does an in-depth study of:

  • Impact at the ground levelespecially on the students. A questionnaire was collected from students and Teachers.
  • Analysis of the immediate and long-term effects of the pandemic on different levels of education (e.g., primary, secondary, tertiary)
  • Examination of learning loss, educational inequalities, and disparities in access to education
  • Exploration of the different strategies and approaches adopted by educational institutions in response to the pandemic (e.g., remote learning, hybrid models, learning pods).
  • Assessment of the effectiveness of these responses in maintaining educational continuity
  • Analysis of the challenges faced and lessons learned from the implementation of these responses
  • Evaluation of the socio-emotional impact on students and educators

III) Important policy implications of your study

  • Public finance on education
  • Student mobility and access
  • Measures and rules to help students learning during school closure.
  • Mandatory upgradation of schools to prepare for a new digital learning
  • Introduction of vocational courses and online open courses.
  • Government should promote distance learning.
  • RegardingVirtual learning for its beneficial aspect rather than a detrimental one.
  • Policies responses has to consider all stakeholders including parents, teachers, children, institutional administrations and government.
  • File no: 6.83

Dr S. Thangboi Zou, Department of Geography, Rayburn College, Manipur

“Mapping Alcohol Prohibition in Manipur: A Social Geographic Study”

Critical Findings

It is found that the prohibition of foreign liquor is being compensated by increase in the production and selling of local liquor in certain locations besides the illegal entry of foreign liquor with higher price. While majority believes that banning of liquor and banning of open selling in marketplaces deters younger generation from consuming alcohol, selling and consumption of alcohol go against the religious belief. Prohibition of alcohol/liquor in Manipur has highly affected the potential revenue of the State’s exchequer. About Rs. 500 crore per year is estimated to be lost in the State due to prohibition as per official statement. Consumers who abstain from local-made liquor are found to spend more on buying highly priced IMF liquors that are illegally imported from outside Manipur. Moreover, the price of the locally produced alcohol is no longer low as some local brand cost even more than Rs.1000 per litre, currently which lies beyond the reach of the low-income section of consumers. In the hill districts, illicit alcohol ‘taxes’ are levied from the brewers and out-letters/sellers by various state and non-state actors. Such taxed money goes to the pockets of the individual ‘collectors’, not in the state coffer.

Relevance for Society

In societal aspect, the negative impact seemingly has outweighed the anticipated positive result. This suggests that there is no difference between opening and banning of liquor due to pervasive clandestine trafficking and sales. There is increasing trend of liquor proliferation across the producing communities so much so that the quality and health consciousness is often compromised. There are lots of gray areas on alcohol prohibition in the State of Manipur. Apart from myriads of social pathologies, the pressure on household economy in buying locally made or imported alcohol in uncontrolled and inflated priceis an important point of argument relevant to all section of societies. Therefore, a pertinent question has arisen that the state and society as a whole should endeavor to understand the economic hardship faced by the public (state), and consider lifting the ban on alcohol in urgent manner.

Important Policy Implication

The governing bodies – local, district and state level should analyse deeply the impact of prohibition and should immediately frame policy or legislate bills (and laws) in regards to market behaviours on liquor, granting of trade licences to local entrepreneurs, and related clauses of regulations pertaining to liquor consumption, sale and flow of commodities into town and market places. The policy makers should also carefully consider the possible social impact that may follow after opening the liquor markets. While strict regulation on market (selling and buying) may not be advisable in the long run, utmost vigilance should be maintained to prevent law and order problem in the society at any cost.

File No. 6.89

Dr.  Rajkumari S. Devi, Department of Statistic, Moreh College, Manipur

“Knowledge, Attitudes and Perception towards Covid-19 among the Economically Productive Age Group Population Living in Urban and Rural Areas in Manipur: A Cross Sectional Field Survey Study”


The findings suggested that

The rural residents were more knowledgeable than their urban counterparts towards the causes, symptoms, prevention against COVID-19. However, there were no significant differences in their knowledge levels.

It was observed that urban residents were having more positive attitudes towards COVID – 19 than the rural counterparts which were statistically significant in the present study.

However, there were insignificant differences in perception in rural and urban areas towards COVID -19.

There were no significant differences in the mean scores of Knowledge, attitudes and perceptions among the different age group and

It was observed that no socio- bio-demographic variables were found to be significantly associated with knowledge, attitudes and perceptions except the type of residence showed significantly associated with attitude.


In overall, significant predictor’s variables of participant knowledge in this study were type of residence, gender and educational level. Educational level was found to be the only predictor variable of participants attitude towards COVID -19. Among the rural residents age and occupation were the two predicted factors associated with knowledge whereas in urban participants sex was the significant predicted factor associated with knowledge on COVID-19. Religion was the significant predictors variable about the rural participants attitudes towards COVID – 19. However, there were no predictor’s variables on attitudes among the urban participants. There were no significant predictor’s variables among the rural and urban participants on their perception towards COVID -19.


It is important to increase the correct knowledge on causes, modes of spreads and correct ways of preventing the disease at the individuals, family and community levels of a state. There is a need to have a favourable attitude and perceptions towards COVID -19.

It is important to identify the population structure of the people living in the rural and urban areas, their means of livelihood and the health facilities provided at the remote areas to fight against the disease.

Update the information on COVID-19 to the public from times to times so that the public will be well aware about the disease.